Background information about the Lao education system, facts about the country, foreign institutions involved in the education system, information for travellers, publications on the Lao language and the country’s history, in German and English language



Germany and Laos


Auswaertiges Amt (2016): Laos – Reise und Sicherheitshinweise. In: (accessed June 13, 2016)

Auswaertiges Amt (2015): Laos. In: (accessed June 13, 2016)

Bundesministerium für wirtschaftliche Zusammenarbeit und Entwicklung (2016): Laos. In: (accessed June 13, 2016)

Deutsche Botschaft Vientiane (2016): Startseite. In: (accessed June 13, 2016)

Laotische Botschaft Berlin (2016): Startseite. In: (accessed June 13, 2016)



Lao education system


Bäcktorp, Ann-Louise (2007): When the First-World-North Goes Local: Education and gender in post-revolution Laos. Doctoral dissertation, Faculty of Social Sciences: Umeå University. In:  (accessed June 13, 2016)

Benvenista, Luis & Marshall, Jeffrey & Santibanez, Lucrecia (2007): Teaching in Lao PDR. Vientiane: Human Development Sector, East Asia and the Pacific Region, the World Bank and Ministry of Education, Lao People’s Democratic Republic. (accessed June 13, 2016)

Berge, Britt-Marie et. al. (2016): Reforming Lao teacher education to include females and ethnic minorities – exploring possibilities and constraints. Asia Pacific Journal of Education,

Chomsky, Noam (2005): At War With Asia. Oakland: AK Press.

Dorner, Daniel G./Gorman, G.E. (2011): “Contextual factors affecting learning in Laos and the implications for information literacy reduction”. Information Research, 15 (1) paper 479. In: (accessed June 13, 2016)

Faming, Manynooch (2007): Schooling in the Lao People’s Democratic Republic. P. 170-206. In: Postiglione, Gerard A. & Tan, Jason (2007): Going to School in East Asia. Londong: Greenwood Press.

Faming, Manynooch (2008): National integration: education for ethnic minorities of the Lao People’s Democratic Republic. PH. D Thesis. Hong Kong: University of Hong Kong. (accessed June 13, 2016)

Halpern, Joel & Tinsman, Marilyn C. (1966): “Education and Nation Building in Laos”. Comparative Education Review.  10 (3): 499-507. (accessed June 13, 2016)

Hays, Jeffrey (2008): “Education in Laos”. (accessed June 13, 2016)

Hirosata, Yasushi & Kitamura, Yuto (2009): The Political Economy of Educational Reforms and Capacity Development in Southeast Asia – Cases of Cambodia, Laos and Vietnam. Political and Educational Reforms – google books (accessed June 13, 2016)

International Bureau of Education (2011): “World Data on Education. Lao People’s Democratic Republic”. (accessed June 13, 2016)

McDaniel, Justin Thomas (2008): Gathering Leaves and Lifting Words: Histories of Buddhist Monastic Education in Laos and Thailand. Washington: University of Washington Press.

Noonan, Richard (2011): Education in the Lao People’s Democratic Republic: confluence of history and vision. In: Brock, Colin/Pe Symaco, Lorraine (ed.). Education in South-East Asia, 69-94. Oxford: Symposium Books.

Noonan, Richard (2014): US Aid to Education in Laos, 1955-1975: A Contribution To Historical Comparative Education, Embedded In Time And Space. In: Journal of International and Comparative Education. Vol. 3 Issue 1. P. 153-169                      (accessed June 13, 2016)

Save the Children (2015): “Education”. (accessed June 13, 2016)

Souriyavingsa, Thongma & Rany, Sam & Lai Mei, Leong (2013): Factors Causes Students Low English Language Learning: A Case Study in the National University of Laos. International Journal of English Language Education  1 (1): 179-192. (accessed June 13, 2016)

Southeast Asian Ministers of Education Organization SEAMEO (2015): “Lao PDR – National Education System”. (accessed June 13, 2016)

Unicef (2013): “At a glance: Lao People’s Democratic Republic”. (accessed June 13, 2016)

Walthouse, Emily (2014): “Evolution of Education in Laos”. (accessed June 13, 2016)

Weinberg, Meyer (2009): Asian-American Education. Historical Background and Current Realities. Oxon: Routledge.

Xayapheth, Chaphichith (2015): Changes in institutional governance and management of higher education in Laos: National University of Laos. PH. D Thesis. Minho: Biblioteca da Universidade do Minho.



English as a foreign language in Asia


ASEAN (2012): ASEAN 5-Year Work Plan on Education (2011-2015). Jakarta: ASEAN Secretariat.

Benson, Carol & Kosonen, Kimmo (2011): A Critical Comparision of Language-In-Education Policy and Practice in four Southeast Asian Countries and Ethiopia. In: Skutnabb-Kangas, Tove & Heugh Kathleen (ed.). Multilingual Education and Sustainable Diversity Work: From Periphery to Center. 111-  New York: Routledge.

Bigalke, Terance W. & Sharbawi Salbrina (ed.) (2015): English for ASEAN Integration: Policies and Practices in the Region. Brunei Darussalam: Universiti Brunei Darussalam.

Chang, Bok-Myung (2011): The roles of English language education in Asian context. Journal of Pan-Pacific Association of Applied Linguistics, 15 (1): 191-206.

Chea, Kagnarith & Klein, Alan & Middlecamp, John (2012): Adapting Textbooks to Reflect Student Needs in Cambodia and the ASEAN Region. Language Education in Asia, 3 (2): 218-229.

Choi, Yeon Hee & Lee, Hyo Woong (2008): Current Trends and Issues in English Language Education in Asia. The Journal of Asia TEFL, 5 (2): 1-34.

Dorner, Daniel G. & Gorman, G.E. (2006): Information Literacy Education in Asian Developing Countries: cultural factors affecting curriculum development and programme delivery. Official Journal of the International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions. 32 (4): 281-293. (accessed June 13, 2016)

Kirkpatrick, Andy (2012): English in ASEAN: Implications for Regional Multilingualism. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 33 (4): 331-344.

Kirkpatrick, Andy (2012): English as an Asian Lingua Franca: the ‘Lingua Franca Approach’ and implications for language education policy. Journal of English as a Lingua Franca, 1 (1): 121-139.

Stroupe, Richmond & Kimura, Kelly (ed.) (2015): ASEAN Integration and the Role of English Language Teaching. Phnom Penh: IELTS.



Vocational training in Laos


Bohlmann, Thomas (2013): “Current situation of the TVET sector in Lao PDR with special emphasis on the education of vocational teachers”. (accessed June 13, 2016)

Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GiZ) GmbH (2015): „Vocational education in Laos (VELA)”. (accessed June 13, 2016)

Faculty of Engineering – National University of Laos (2014): Development of Standards for Vocational Teachers at Bachelor level in Lao PDR. Vientiane: National University of Laos. (accessed June 13, 2016)

ILO (2014): Assessment of the Readiness of ASEAN Member States for Implementation of the Commitment to the Free Flow of Skilled Labour within the ASEAN Economic Community from 2015. ASEAN TRIANGLE Project. Geneva: ILO.–en/index.htm. (accessed June 13, 2016)

Khammounty, Bounseng (2011): Standards für die beruflichen Lehrkräfte in Laos P.D.R. Gestaltungsansätze für die Anpassung der beruflichen Lehreraus- und Weiterbildung. Dissertation. (accessed June 13, 2016)

Lao-German Development Consulting (2013): Multiplier Training System. Vocational Teacher and Training Development in Lao PDR. Vientiane: Lao-German Development Consulting. (accessed June 13, 2016)

Ministry of Education and Sports (2007): “Strategic Plan for the development of technical and vocational education and training from 2006 to 2020”. (accessed June 13, 2016)

Ministry of Education and Sports (2015): TVET Development Plan 2016-2020. Vientiane: Ministry of Education and Sports. (accessed June 13, 2016)

Offene Entwicklungshilfe (2015): „Projekte im Schwerpunkt Sekundärbildung“. (accessed June 13, 2016)

Platter, Reinhard & Pharkonkham, Sengprasong (2014): Appraisal Mission – Vocational Teacher Education Laos. Eschborn: GiZ. (accessed June 13, 2016)

Soysouvanh, B. et al. (2013): Developing standards of vocational teacher at bachelor level in Lao PDR. TVET@Asia, 2: 1-18. (accessed June 13, 2016)

Times Reporters (2015): “Germany supports vocational education in Laos”. (accessed June 13, 2016)

UNESCO (2013): Policy Review of TVET in Lao PDR. Paris: UNESCO. (accessed June 13, 2016)



Facts and numbers on Lao politics, economy etc.


CIA World Factbook (2015): “East & Southeast Asia: Laos”. (accessed June 13, 2016)

Fund for Peace (2015): “Country Data & Trends. Laos in 2015”. (accessed June 13, 2016)

ILO (2012): Decent Work Country Programme Lao PDR (2011-2015). Geneva: ILO. (accessed June 13, 2016)

Vientiane Times (2015): “Lao Constitution”. (accessed June 13, 2016)

World Bank (2014): Lao Development Report 2014. Washington D.C.: World Bank Group. (accessed June 13, 2016)

World Bank (2015): “Lao PDR”. (accessed June 13, 2016)


Foreign support in Education


Australian Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade (2015): “Basic Education Quality and Access in Laos PDR program”. (accessed June 13, 2016)

Embassy of the United States Vientiane, Laos (2015): “English Language Programs”. (accessed June 13, 2016)



Laos for travelers


Bush, Austin, Ellito, Mark & Ray, Nick (2011): Laos. Victoria: Lonely Planet Publications PTY Ltd.Cooper, Robert (2008): The Lao, Laos… Vientiane: Lao-Insight Books.



Lao language

Center for Lao Studies (2016): “Sabaydii and Welcome!”. (accessed June 13, 2016)

Enfield, N J (2006): Laos – language situation. In: Brown, Keith (ed.). Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics, 698-700. Amsterdam: Elsevier.

Lonely planet phrasebooks & Cummings, Joe (2008): Lao with comprehensive dictionary. Victoria: Lonely Planet Publications PTY Ltd.

Werner, Klaus (1998): Learning Lao for everybody. Bielefeld: Reise Know-How Rump GmbH.



Lao history


Lambert, Tim (2015): “A short history of Laos”. (accessed June 13, 2016)

Legacies of War (2015): “Secret War in Laos”. (accessed June 13, 2016)

Scholl-Latour, Peter (2013): Der Tod im Reisfeld. Dreißig Jahre Krieg in Indochina (Neuauflage). Berlin: Ullstein Verlag.

Stuart-Fox, Martin (2008³): Historical Dictionary of Laos (3rd edition). Lanham: Scarecrow Press Inc.
Also available on Google books: Historical Dictionary of Laos – google books. (accessed June 13, 2016)



Ethnic diversity


IFAD (2012): “Country Technical Note on Indigenous Peoples’ Issues. Lao Peoples’ Democratic Republic”. (accessed June 13, 2016)

King, Elizabeth M. & Walle, Dominique van de (2007): Ethno-linguistic Diversity and Disadvantage. In: (accessed June 13, 2016)



Current issues


George, Wiliam Lloyd (2010): “The secret army still fighting Vietnam war”. (accessed June 13, 2016)

Lee, Gary Yia (2007): “Diaspora and the Predicament of Origins: Interrogating Hmong Postcolonial History and Identity”. (accessed June 13, 2016)

Rand, Nelson (2004): “Abandoned army. Insurgency in Laos”. (accessed June 13, 2016)



Lao picture books


Big Brother Mouse (2006 ff.): “About us”. (accessed June 13, 2016)



As of June 13, 2016